Echoes of freedom (2001 university of California publication)
south asian pioneers in California 1899-1965
Most of the immigrant community thinks and says that Kennedy was responsible for changing the immigration laws of America where 20000 from all countries could migrate to America every year with a total limit of 170000.
The Immigration and Nationality act known as Hart- Cellar act was signed by President Lyndon B Johnson on 3 October 1965,abolishing national origins quota system established in 1924.
One of the effects of this change was that men and women became the beneficiaries of this system in about equal numbers while earlier immigrants were mostly men.Many of the earlier farm laborer migrants were not considered Caucasian so were only entitled to marry Spanish(Mexicans) or native Americans.
One Bhagat Singh Thind who served in second world war and was honorably discharged had recived Us citizenship in California which was appealed and he was denied Us citizenship.Justice Sutherland wrote the unanimous decision of the supreme court of the united states of America.
Mr Thind married Vivien Davies who lost her citizenship for marrying him.He wrote 15 books about India ,Sikhism and works of Emerson,Whitman and Thoreau.
Mr thind was later granted United states Citizenship in New York.
But because of supreme court decision many Indians who were already naturalised had their citizenship rescinded. After this ruling many lost the land they had purchased or leased under Alien Land act.